#1,150 – Custom Arc Shape, part II

Below is code that implements a custom Shape to draw an arc.  The earlier code has been improved to:

  • Support elliptical arcs (height != width)
  • Add dependency properties for start and end angles

Start and end angles are automatically coerced to keep them within the range [0, 360).

    public class Arc : Shape
    {
        // Angle that arc starts at
        public double StartAngle
        {
            get { return (double)GetValue(StartAngleProperty); }
            set { SetValue(StartAngleProperty, value); }
        }

        // DependencyProperty - StartAngle
        private static PropertyMetadata startAngleMetadata =
                new PropertyMetadata(
                    0.0,     // Default value
                    null,    // Property changed callback
                    new CoerceValueCallback(CoerceAngle));   // Coerce value callback

        public static readonly DependencyProperty StartAngleProperty =
            DependencyProperty.Register("StartAngle", typeof(double), typeof(Arc), startAngleMetadata);

        // Angle that arc ends at
        public double EndAngle
        {
            get { return (double)GetValue(EndAngleProperty); }
            set { SetValue(EndAngleProperty, value); }
        }

        // DependencyProperty - EndAngle
        private static PropertyMetadata endAngleMetadata =
                new PropertyMetadata(
                    90.0,     // Default value
                    null,    // Property changed callback
                    new CoerceValueCallback(CoerceAngle));   // Coerce value callback

        public static readonly DependencyProperty EndAngleProperty =
            DependencyProperty.Register("EndAngle", typeof(double), typeof(Arc), endAngleMetadata);

        private static object CoerceAngle(DependencyObject depObj, object baseVal)
        {
            double angle = (double)baseVal;
            angle = Math.Min(angle, 359.9);
            angle = Math.Max(angle, 0.0);
            return angle;
        }

        protected override Geometry DefiningGeometry
        {
            get
            {
                double maxWidth = RenderSize.Width;
                double maxHeight = RenderSize.Height;

                double xStart = maxWidth / 2.0 * Math.Cos(StartAngle * Math.PI / 180.0);
                double yStart = maxHeight / 2.0 * Math.Sin(StartAngle * Math.PI / 180.0);

                double xEnd = maxWidth / 2.0 * Math.Cos(EndAngle * Math.PI / 180.0);
                double yEnd = maxHeight / 2.0 * Math.Sin(EndAngle * Math.PI / 180.0);

                StreamGeometry geom = new StreamGeometry();
                using (StreamGeometryContext ctx = geom.Open())
                {
                    ctx.BeginFigure(
                        new Point((maxWidth / 2.0) + xStart,
                                   (maxHeight / 2.0) - yStart),
                        false,
                        false);
                    ctx.ArcTo(
                        new Point((maxWidth / 2.0) + xEnd,
                                  (maxHeight / 2.0) - yEnd),
                        new Size(maxWidth / 2.0, maxHeight / 2),
                        0.0,     // rotationAngle
                        (EndAngle - StartAngle) > 180,   // greater than 180 deg?
                        SweepDirection.Counterclockwise,
                        true,    // isStroked
                        true);
                }

                return geom;
            }
        }
    }

We can use the Arc shape as shown below.

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#1,149 – Drawing an Arc in a Custom Shape

We can use a StreamGeometryContext to render some geometry in a custom Shape element that we can then use in XAML.  Below is an example that draws a simple arc from 0 degress to 90 degrees.  It uses a PolarPoint class to allow describing the arc start and finish as polar coordinates.  (A future post will allow a user to specify arc start and end).

    public class Arc : Shape
    {
        protected override Geometry DefiningGeometry
        {
            get
            {
                double maxWidth = RenderSize.Width;
                double maxHeight = RenderSize.Height;
                double maxRadius = Math.Min(maxWidth, maxHeight) / 2.0;

                PolarPoint arcStart = new PolarPoint(maxRadius, 0.0);
                PolarPoint arcFinish = new PolarPoint(maxRadius, 90.0);

                StreamGeometry geom = new StreamGeometry();
                using (StreamGeometryContext ctx = geom.Open())
                {
                    ctx.BeginFigure(
                        new Point((maxWidth / 2.0) + arcStart.X,
                                   (maxHeight / 2.0) - arcStart.Y),
                        false,
                        false);
                    ctx.ArcTo(
                        new Point((maxWidth / 2.0) + arcFinish.X,
                                  (maxHeight / 2.0) - arcFinish.Y),
                        new Size(maxRadius, maxRadius),
                        0.0,     // rotationAngle
                        false,   // greater than 180 deg?
                        SweepDirection.Counterclockwise,
                        true,    // isStroked
                        true);
                }

                return geom;
            }
        }
    }

Using the arc:

        <loc:Arc Stroke="Black" StrokeThickness="1"
                 Height="100" Width="100" Margin="5"
                 HorizontalAlignment="Center"/>

1149-001

#1,148 – Sample Code to Convert from Polar to Cartesian Coordinates

Below is some simple code (not productized) that can convert from two-dimensional polar to cartesian coordinates.

    public class PolarPoint
    {
        // Angle expressed in degrees
        public PolarPoint(double radius, double angleDeg)
        {
            if (radius < 0.0)
                throw new ArgumentException("Radius must be non-negative");
            if ((angleDeg < 0) || (angleDeg >= 360.0))
                throw new ArgumentException("Angle must be in range [0,360)");

            Radius = radius;
            AngleDeg = angleDeg;
        }

        // Polar coordinates
        public double Radius { get; set; }
        public double AngleDeg { get; set; }

        // Cartesian coordinates
        public double X
        {
            get { return Radius * Math.Cos(AngleDeg * Math.PI / 180.0); }
        }

        public double Y
        {
            get { return Radius * Math.Sin(AngleDeg * Math.PI / 180.0); }
        }

        public override string ToString()
        {
            return string.Format("({0},{1})", X, Y);
        }
    }

We can then use this class as follows.

            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(0.0, 0.0));
            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(1.0, 0.0));
            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(1.0, 45.0));
            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(1.0, 90.0));
            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(1.0, 135.0));
            Console.WriteLine(new PolarPoint(1.0, 180.0));

1148-001

#1,147 – Converting from Polar Coordinates to Cartesian Coordinates

You can represent a two dimensional point as either a cartesian coordinate (X,Y) or a polar coordinate (r,theta).  Conversions between these two coordinate systems are shown below.

From polar coordinates to cartesian:

1147-001

To convert from cartesian coordinates to polar, the following formula works, as long as the X value is positive.

1147-002

If X is 0 or negative, then the calculation for theta becomes:

1147-003

#1,146 – Polar Coordinate System

In most cases when you’re working with graphical objects, you use a cartesian coordinate system, where each point is represented as an X and a Y value, indicating the point’s distance from an origin in two different dimensions.

You can also express points in a two-dimensional system using a polar coordinate system.  Each point in a polar coordinate system is represented with two values:

  • A radius value, describing how far the point is from an origin  (range is any non-negative number)
  • An angular coordinate, describing how many degrees around the circle the point is located, typically from a horizontal ray extending to the right of the origin  (range typically [0, 360) degrees or [0, 2*pi) radians)

Below is a picture showing two sample points expressed in polar coordinates.

  • (2.0, 60) – Radius = 2, Angle = 60 degrees (counterclockwise) from horizontal
  • (1.0, 180) – Radius = 1, Angle = 180 degrees (counterclockwise) from horizontal

1146-001

 

#699 – Converting an Image Control to a Bitmap

You may want to work with the image from an Image control as a standard Windows bitmap.  You can convert the System.Windows.Controls.Image to a System.Drawing.Bitmap as follows (imgLife is an Image control):

        private void Button_Click(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
        {
            RenderTargetBitmap rtBmp = new RenderTargetBitmap((int)imgLife.ActualWidth, (int)imgLife.ActualHeight,
                96.0, 96.0, PixelFormats.Pbgra32);

            imgLife.Measure(new System.Windows.Size((int)imgLife.ActualWidth, (int)imgLife.ActualHeight));
            imgLife.Arrange(new Rect(new System.Windows.Size((int)imgLife.ActualWidth, (int)imgLife.ActualHeight)));

            rtBmp.Render(imgLife);

            PngBitmapEncoder encoder = new PngBitmapEncoder();
            MemoryStream stream = new MemoryStream();
            encoder.Frames.Add(BitmapFrame.Create(rtBmp));

            // Save to memory stream and create Bitamp from stream
            encoder.Save(stream);
            System.Drawing.Bitmap bitmap = new System.Drawing.Bitmap(stream);

            // Demonstrate that we can do something with the Bitmap
            bitmap.Save(@"D:\Temp\Life.png", ImageFormat.Png);

            // Optionally, if we didn't need Bitmap object, but
            // just wanted to render to file, we could:
            //encoder.Save(new FileStream(@"D:\Temp\Life-Other.png", FileMode.Create));
        }

#566 – Setting Properties of an Effect in Blend

Like other elements, you can set various properties of an effect in Blend using the Properties panel.

In the example below, we’ve added a DropShadowEffect to a Label.  If you select the effect in the XAML editor or the Objects and Timeline panel, you’ll see several properties that we can set for this effect.

For example, we can increase the ShadowDepth, so that the shadow appears further away from the Label.

#564 – Other Places to Get Third Party Effects

An effect in WPF changes the appearance of a visual element.  The .NET Framework comes with only a couple of effects, but you can find a few other third party effects on the web.

Here are some of the effects from the Pixel Shader Effects Library:

 

#563 – Additional Effects in Expression SDK

In addition to the two effects that come with the .NET Framework, you can get access to a number of other effects when you download and install the Expression Blend SDK for .NET 4.

Once you install the SDK, you’ll see the new effects show up in the Effects folder of the Assets panel.

The effects include:

  • Bloom – Make bright areas appear brighter
  • Color Tone – Render a visual using shades of two colors
  • Emboss – Make visual appear raised or stamped
  • Magnify – Magnify a circular area
  • Monochrome – Render using shades of a single color
  • Pixelate – Reduce resolution, rendering as large pixels
  • Ripple – Apply visual that looks like rippling liquid
  • Sharpen – Sharpen image edges
  • Swirl – Apply effect that twists entire image

 

#562 – Setting an Effect for an Element in Blend

You can set the value of the Effect property for any control deriving from UIElement.  An effect is a two-dimensional graphical effect applied to the control when it is rendered.

To apply an effect to a control in Blend, start by left-clicking on the Effects folder in the Assets panel.

The .NET Framework comes with two pre-defined effects, located in PresentationCore–BlurEffect and DropShadowEffect.  (The other effects shown above come from the Expression SDK for .NET 4).  You can drag either of these effects onto a control on the artboard, or a control listed in the Objects and Timeline panel.

Two Label controls, before adding effects:

After adding effects:

Corresponding XAML:

		<Label Content="Drop Shadow Effect" FontFamily="Cooper Black" FontSize="48"
			Margin="20,20,20,5" Foreground="#FF047800" HorizontalAlignment="Center">
			<Label.Effect>
				<DropShadowEffect/>
			</Label.Effect>
		</Label>
		<Label Content="Blur Effect" FontFamily="Cooper Black" FontSize="48"
			Margin="20,5,20,20" Foreground="#FF047800" HorizontalAlignment="Center">
			<Label.Effect>
				<BlurEffect/>
			</Label.Effect>
		</Label>